ROME, 18 SEPT. 2007 (ZENIT)
Answered by Legionary of Christ
Father Edward McNamara, professor of liturgy at the Regina Apostolorum
Q: Could you clarify why three cloths are used on the altar? We have a
discussion ongoing in our parish where there are two schools of thought:
Either this has a symbolic reference to the Trinity or, alternatively,
has a symbolism linked to the shroud cloths of Christ. —
A.F., Sheffield, England
A: The question of cloths on the altar is dealt with in the General
Instruction of the Roman Missal, No. 304, which states:
"Out of reverence for the celebration of the memorial of the Lord and
for the banquet in which the Body and Blood of the Lord are offered on
an altar where this memorial is celebrated, there should be at least one
white cloth, its shape, size, and decoration in keeping with the altar's
design. When, in the dioceses of the United States of America, other
cloths are used in addition to the altar cloth, then those cloths may be
of other colors possessing Christian honorific or festive significance
according to longstanding local usage, provided that the uppermost cloth
covering the mensa (i.e., the altar cloth itself) is always white in
Therefore, only one white cloth is obligatory in the present rite unlike
the extraordinary form of the Roman rite (the Missal of John XXIII)
which specifies three cloths, one of which covers the entire altar table
and hangs down the sides almost to the floor. The other two cover at
least the table or the stone containing the sacred relic.
The attribution of possible symbolic references for these cloths is not
uniform and their history is often entangled. Sometimes in liturgy an
object is first used for one reason, for example, covering a sacred
object with a cloth as a sign of respect and care.
This was a fairly common practice in the ancient world and is not
exclusive to Christianity or even to the specifically religious sphere.
It was sometimes applied to civil objects such as symbols of authority
or formal copies of imperial decrees.
During the Middle Ages many well-established liturgical customs were
interpreted allegorically as bearing on some doctrinal aspect or
representing some moment of the Redemption.
In this way some authors interpreted objects such as the altar cloths as
representing the Lord's shroud, others as the Trinity. Finally, the
allegorical interpretation was sometimes reinforced by being
incorporated into the design and decoration of the object itself.
The Church itself has usually refrained from granting official sanction
to these allegorical interpretations. In some cases more than one
interpretation might be legitimate and even useful for illustrating some
particular doctrinal point. In other cases excessive use of allegory can
even lead us to miss the main theological point, for example, in
explaining the essentially sacrificial nature of the Mass.
Another cloth which may be used on the altar is the antependium, or
frontal, which hangs down in front of the altar, usually reaching the
In the Western tradition, it is white or some similar color although in
some countries it follows the seasonal liturgical color. It may be
adorned or embroidered according to local custom and culture. An
antependium enhances the dignity of the altar and helps to clearly
define the liturgical season.
Other practical cloths may also be placed on the altar such as an
under-cloth and a dust cover which is placed over the altar cloth when
not in use so as to keep it clean at all times.
* * *
Follow-up: Altar Cloths [10-2-2007]
A priest reader from British Columbia sent in some more information
regarding cloths that may be placed upon the altar (see Sept. 18
He wrote: "There is the practice, not universal, of placing a cerecloth,
a cloth made waterproof by being soaked in wax. It was placed
immediately under the altar cloth to prevent, in the case of accident,
any spilled Precious Blood seeping through to other cloths or coverings.
Apparently this type of cloth was also used in wrapping a corpse. Hence,
the mind might allow for a connection between the Bloody Sacrifice of
Calvary and the Un-bloody Sacrifice of the Holy Mass."
A reader from Israel asked: "Is there or was there a rite or prayers to
prepare an altar that hasn't been used recently for Mass and hasn't had
the Blessed Sacrament present for a while? Perhaps called 'dressing the
In most cases an altar that has been unused for some time does not lose
its original dedication and there is no need to be dedicated or blessed
A suitable way of underlining the return to use is with a new set of
liturgical objects, such as a new altar cloth and other linens. These
may be blessed at the beginning of Mass using the appropriate rites and
formulas described in the Book of Blessings.